[Thuật ngữ Y khoa] Từ viết tắt trong thực hành lâm sàng y khoa và bệnh học

Các từ viết tắt rất hay gặp trong thuật ngữ y khoa, được sử dụng trong thực hành khám chữa bệnh, kê đơn thuốc. Ngoài ra còn được dùng trong các cuốn cẩm nang (mannual) hay hướng dẫn (guidelines), một số khác có thể dùng dưới dạng ký hiệu và biểu tượng.
Bài viết cập nhật danh mục các từ viết tắt thông dụng trong thuật ngữ y khoa Tiếng Anh, được sắp xếp theo thứ tự A-Z giúp bạn đọc có thể tra cứu nhanh từ cần tìm.


Tác giả: TS.BS. Huỳnh Hồng Quang
Viện Sốt rét – Ký Sinh trùng – Côn trùng Quy Nhơn
Nguồn: impe-qn.org.vn



AAA – abdominal aortic aneurysm

A-a gradient – alveolar to arterial gradient

AAD – antibiotic-associated diarrhea

AAO – alert, awake, and oriented

A&O – alert & oriented

AAS – acute abdominal series

ABD – abdomen

ABG – arterial blood gas

AC – before eating

ACLS – advanced cardiac life support

ACTH – adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH – anti-diuretic hormone

ADR – adverse drug reaction. | acute dystonic reaction

ad lib – as much as needed

AED – antiepileptic drug

AF – atrial fibrillation or afebrile

AFB – acid-fast bacilli

AFP – alpha-fetoprotein

A/G – albumin/globulin ratio

AI – aortic insufficiency

AKA  – above the knee amputation

ALD – alcoholic liver disease

ALL – acute lymphocytic leukemia

amb – ambulate

AML – acute myelogenous leukemia

ANA – antinuclear antibody

ANS – autonomic nervous system

AOB – alcohol o­n breath

AODM – adult o­nset diabetes mellitus

AP – anteroposterior or abdominal – perineal

ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARF – acute renal failure

AS – aortic stenosis

ASAP – as soon as possible

ASCVD – atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

ASD – atrial septal defect

ASHD – atherosclerotic heart disease

AV – atrioventricular

A-V – arteriovenous

A-VO2 – arteriovenous oxygen

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BBB – bundle branch block

BCAA – branched chain amino acids

BE barium enema

BEE – basal energy expenditure

bid twice a day

BKA – below the knee amputation

BM – bone marrow or bowel movement

BMR – basal metabolic rate

BOM – bilateral otitis media

BP – blood pressure

BPH – benign prostatic hypertrophy

BPM – beats per minute

BRBPR – bright red blood per rectum

BRP – bathroom priviledges

BS – bowel or breath sounds

BUN – blood urea nitrogen

BW – body weight

BX – biopsy

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c – with

C&S – culture and sensitivity

CA – cancer

Ca – calcium

CAA – crystalline amino acids

CABG – coronary artery bypass graft

CAD – coronary artery disease

CAT – computerized axial tomography

CBC – complete blood count

CBG – capillary blood gas

CC – chief complaint

CCU – clean catch urine or cardiac care unit

CCV – critical closing volume

CF – cystic fibrosis

CGL – chronic granulocytic leukemia

CHF – congestive heart failure

CHO – carbohydrate

CI – cardiac index

CML – chronic myelogenous leukemia

CMV – cytomegalovirus

CN – cranial nerves

CNS – central nervous system

CO – cardiac output

C/O – complaining of

COLD – chronic obstructive lung disease

COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CP – chest pain or cerebral palsy

CPAP – continuous positive airway pressure

CPK – creatine phosphokinase

CPR – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CRCL – creatinine clearance

CRF – chronic renal failure

CRP – C-reactive protein

CSF – cerebrospinal fluid

CT – computerized tomography

CVA – cerebrovascular accident or costovertebral angle

CVAT – CVA tenderness

CVP – central venous pressure

CXR – chest X-ray

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DAT – diet as tolerated

DAW – dispense as written

DC – discontinue or discharge

D&C – dilation and curettage

DDx – differential diagnosis

D5W – 5% dextrose in water

DI – diabetes insipidus

DIC – disseminated intravascular coagulopathy

DIP – distal interphalangeal joint

DJD – degenerative joint disease

DKA – diabetic ketoacidosis

dL – deciliter

DM – diabetes mellitus

DNR – do not resuscitate

DOA – dead o­n arrival

DOE – dyspnea o­n exertion

DPL – diagnostic peritoneal lavage

DPT – diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

DTR – deep tendon reflexes

DVT – deep venous thrombosis

DX – diagnosis

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EAA – essential amino acids

EBL – estimated blood loss

ECG – electrocardiogram

ECT – electroconvulsive therapy

EFAD – essential fatty acid deficiency

EMG – Electromyogram

EMV – eyes, motor, verbal response (Glasgow coma scale)

ENT – ears, nose, and throat

EOM – extraocular muscles

ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ET – endotracheal

ETT – endotracheal tube

ERCP – endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography

ETOH – ethanol

EUA – examination under anesthesia

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FBS – fasting blood sugar

FEV – forced expiratory volume

FFP – fresh frozen plasma

FRC – functional residual capacity

FTT – failure to thrive

FU – follow-up

FUO – fever of unknown origin

FVC – forced vital capacity

Fx – fracture

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GC – gonorrhea

GETT – general by endotracheal tube

GFR – glomerular filtration rate

GI – gastrointestinal

gr – grain; 1 grain = 65mg. Therefore Vgr = 325mg

GSW – gun shot wound

gt or gtt – drops

GTT – glucose tolerance test

GU – genitourinary

GXT – graded exercise tolerance (Stress test)

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HA – headache

HAA – hepatitis B surface antigen

HAV – hepatitis A virus

HBP – high blood pressure

HCG – human chorionic gonadotropin

HCT – hematocrit

HDL – high density lipoprotein

HEENT – head, eyes, ears, nose, throat

Hgb – hemoglobin

H/H – henderson- hasselbach equation or hemoglobin/hematocrit

HIV – human immunodeficiency virus

HLA – histocompatibility locus antigen

HJR – hepatojugular reflex

HO – history of

HOB – head of bed

HPF – high power field

HPI – history of present illness

HR – heart rate

HS – at bedtime

HSM – hepatosplenomegaly

HTLV-III – human lymphotropic virus, type III (AIDS agent, HIV)

HSV – herpes simplex virus

HTN – hypertension

Hx – history

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I&D – incision and drainage

I&O – intake and output

ICS – intercostal space

ICU – intensive care unit

ID – infectious disease or identification

IDDM – insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

IG – immunoglobulin

IHSS – idiopathic hypertropic subaortic stenosis

IM – intramuscular

IMV – intermittent mandatory ventilation

INF – intravenous nutritional fluid

IPPB – intermittent positive pressure breathing

IRBBB – incomplete right bundle branch block

IRDM – insulin resistant diabetes mellitus

IT – interthecal

ITP – idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IV – intravenous

IVC – intravenous cholangiogram | inferior vena cava

IVP – intravenous pyelogram

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JODM – juvenile o­nset diabetes mellitus

JVD – jugular venous distention


KOR – keep open rate

KUB – kidneys, ureters, bladder

KVO – keep vein open



L – left

LAD – left axis deviation or left anterior descending

LAE – left atrial enlargement

LAHB – left anterior hemiblock

LAP – left atrial pressure or leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

LBBB – left bundle branch block

LDH – lactate dehydrogenase

LE – lupus erythematosus

LIH – left inguinal hernia

LLL – left lower lobe

LMP – last menstrual period

LNMP – last normal menstrual period

LOC – loss of consciousness or level of consciousness

LP – lumbar puncture

LPN – licensed practical nurse

LUL – left upper lobe

LUQ – Left Upper Quadrant

LV – left ventricle

LVEDP – left ventricular end diastolic pressure

LVH – left ventricular hypertrophy

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MAO – monoamine oxidase

MAP – mean arterial pressure

MAST – medical antishock trousers

MBT – maternal blood type

MCH – mean cell hemoglobin

MCHC – mean cell hemoglobin concentration

MCV – mean cell volume

MI – myocardial infarction or mitral insufficiency

mL – milliliter

MLE – midline episiotomy

MMEF – maximal mid expiratory flow

mmol – millimole

MMR – measles, mumps, rubella

MRI – magnetic resonance imaging

MRSA – methicillin resistant staph aureus

MS – multiple sclerosis or mitral stenosis, or morphine sulfate

MSSA – methicillin-sensitive staph aureus

MVA – motor vehicle accident

MVI – multivitamin injection

MVV – maximum voluntary ventilation

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NAD – no active disease

NAS – no added salt

NCV – nerve conduction velocity

NED – no evidence of recurrent disease

ng – nanogram

NG – nasogastric

NIDDM – non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

NKA – no known allergies

NKDA – no known drug allergies

NMR – nuclear magnetic resonance

NPO – nothing by mouth

NRM – no regular medications

NSAID – non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs

NSR – normal sinus rhythm

NT – nasotracheal


OB – obstetrics

OCG – oral cholecystogram

OD – overdose or right eye

OM – otitis media

OOB – out of bed

OOP – out of plaster

OPV – oral polio vaccine

OR – operating room

OS – left eye

OU – both eyes

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P – para

PA – posteroanterior

PAC – premature atrial contraction

PAO2 – alveolar oxygen

PaO2 – peripheral arterial oxygen content

PAP – pulmonary artery pressure

PAT – paroxysymal atrial tachycardia

P&PD – percussion and postural drainage

PC – after eating

PCWP – pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PDA – patent ductus arteriosus

PDR – physicians desk reference

PE – pulmonary embolus, or physical exam or pleural effusion

PEEP – positive end expiratory pressure

PFT – pulmonary function tests

pg – picogram

PI – pulmonic insufficiency disease

PKU – phenylketonuria

PMH – previous medical history

PMI – point of maximal impulse

PMN – polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil)

PND – paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

PO – by mouth

POD – post-op day

PP – postprandial or pulsus paradoxus

PPD – purified protein derivative

PR – by rectum

PRBC – packed red blood cells

PRN – as needed

PS – pulmonic stenosis

PT – prothrombin time, or physical therapy

Pt – patient

PTCA – percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTH – parathyroid hormone

PTHC – percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram

PTT – partial thromboplastin time

PUD – peptic ulcer disease

PVC – premature ventricular contraction

PVD – peripheral vascular disease

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q – every (e.g. q6h = every 6 hours)

qd – every day

qh – every hour

q4h, q6h…. – every 4 hours, every 6 hours etc.

qid – four times a day

QNS – quantity not sufficient

qod – every other day

Qs/Qt – shunt fraction

Qt – total cardiac output


R – right

RA – rheumatoid arthritis or right atrium

RAD – right atrial axis deviation

RAE – right atrial enlargement

RAP – right atrial pressure

RBBB – right bundle branch block

RBC – red blood cell

RBP – retinol-binding protein

RDA – recommended daily allowance

RDW – red cell distribution width

RIA – radioimmunoassay

RIH – right inguinal hernia

RLL – right lower lobe

RLQ – right lower quadrant

RML – right middle lobe

RNA – ribonucleic acid

R/O – rule out

ROM – range of motion

ROS – review of systems

RPG – retrograde pyelogram

RRR – regular rate and rhythm

RT – respiratory or radiation therapy

RTA – renal tubular acidosis

RTC – return to clinic

RU – resin uptake

RUG – retrograde urethogram

RUL – right upper lobe

RUQ – right upper quadrant

RV – residual volume

RVH – right ventricular hyperthrophy

Rx – treatment

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s – without | ss = o­ne-half

SA – sinoatrial

SAA – synthetic amino acid

S&E – sugar and acetone

SBE – subacute bacterial endocarditis

SBFT – small bowel follow through

SBS – short bowel syndrome

SCr – serum creatinine

SEM – systolic ejection murmur

SG – Swan-Ganz

SGA – small for gestational age

SGGT – serum gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase

SGOT – serum glutamic- oxaloacetic transaminase

SGPT – serum glutamic- pyruvic transaminase

SIADH – syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

sig – write o­n label

SIMV – synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation

sl – sublingual

SLE – systemic lupus erythematous

SMO – slips made out

SOAP – subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan

SOB – shortness of breath

SQ – subcutaneous

STAT – immediately

SVD – spontaneous vaginal delivery

Sx – symptoms

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T&C – type and cross

TAH – total abdominal hysterectomy

T&H – type and hold

TB – tuberculosis

TBG – total binding globulin

Td – tetanus-diphtheria toxoid

TIA – transient ischemic attack

TIBC – total iron binding capacity

tid – three times a day

TIG – tetanus immune globulin

TKO – to keep open

TLC – total lung capacity

TMJ – temporo mandibular joint

TNTC – too numerous to count

TO – telephone order

TOPV – trivalent oral polio vaccine

TPN – total parenteral nutrition

TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone

TT – thrombin time

TTP – thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

TU – tuberculin units

TUR – transurethral resection

TURBT – TUR bladder tumors

TURP – transurethral resection of prostate

TV – tidal volume

TVH – total vaginal hysterectomy

tw – twice a week

Tx – treatment, transplant

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UA – urinalysis

UAC – uric acid | umbilical artery catheter

UAO – upper airway obstruction

UBD – universal blood donor

UC – ulcerative colitis | umbilical cord

ud – as directed

UFH – unfractionated heparin

UGI – upper gastrointestinal

URI – upper respiratory infection

URQ – upper right quadrant

US – ultrasound

UTI – urinary tract infection

UUN – urinary urea nitrogen

UVA – ultraviolet A light


VAD – venous access device

VC – vital capacity

VCT – venous clotting time

VCUG – voiding cysourethrogram

VDRL – Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (test for syphilis)

VMA – vanillymadelic acid

VO – verbal or voice order

V/Q – ventilation – perfusion

VRE – vancomycin-resistant enterococcus

VSS – vital signs stable

VT – ventricular tachycardia

VV – varicose veins

VW – vessel wall

VWD – von Willebrand’s disease

VZV – varicella zoster virus

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WB – whole blood

WBC – white blood cell or count

WBR – whole body radiation

WD – well developed

WF – white female

WIA – wounded in action

WID – widow, widower

WM – white male

WN – well nourished

WNL – within normal limits

WO – written order | weeks old | wide open.

WOP – without pain

W.P. – whirlpool

WPW – Wolff-Parkinson-White

W-T-D – wet to dry

W/U – workup


X2d – times 2 days

XI – eleven

XII – twelve

XL – extended release. | extra large.

XM – crossmatch

XMM – xeromammography

XOM – extraocular movements

XRT – X-ray therapy (radiation therapy)

XS – excessive

XULN – times upper limit of normal


YF – yellow fever

YLC – youngest living child

yo – years old

YOB – year of birth

yr – year

ytd – year to date


ZDV – zidovudine

ZE – Zollinger-Ellison

Z-ESR – zeta erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Zn – zinc

ZnO – zinc oxide

ZSB – zero stools since birth


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